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Configure Instance Connection

Database Instance or simply Instance models after a single database instance which is usually accessed via a host:port address. A typical database instance could be your on-premises MySQL instance, an AWS RDS instance etc. Each Database Instance belongs to an Environment.

Bytebase supports a variety of database types. Bytebase needs the proper connection info to connect to the database instance. All database types share some common settings such as host:port, on the other hand, there are also database type specific settings.


Only Workspace Owner or Workspace DBA role can configure instance.


See Add an Instance.

Connect to the instance on the same host


If you run Bytebase inside Docker and try to connect to a database instance on the same host, then you need to set host as host.docker.internal.


  • If you run Bytebase without Docker and try to connect to a database instance on the same host, then you need to set host as


Configure SSL

SSL connection configuration only supports PostgreSQL, MySQL, TiDB and ClickHouse for now.

Configure SSH tunnel

This feature is only available in the Enterprise Plan.

To protect their databases, some hosting providers block direct remote access. However, they often enable SSH, which allows users to connect to their servers remotely using an SSH client. If you want to connect to a database on one of these servers from Bytebase, you will need to create an SSH tunnel. This will allow you to connect to the database without compromising security.

ssh explain

  1. After filling in the standard database connection information, click SSH Connection > Tunnel + Private Key.
  2. Fill in the SSH connection information. The Private Key is used to authenticate the SSH connection. You can also use a password instead. ssh tunnelling
  3. Click Test Connection. If the connection is successful, click Create to create this instance.

Configure read-only connection

This feature is only available in the Enterprise Plan.

To separate from admin connection, you can configure read-only connections used by SQL Editor once an instance is added. This separation can be configured at the database user/role access control level or replication instance level.

  1. Create a new role with read-only access or a read-replica instance.
  2. Click Create or + on Connection info.
  3. Enter read-only connection info. If this is a read-replica instance, you need to enter its host and port information.
  4. Click Update to finish the configuration.
  5. Click + to add more, or click trash icon to delete.



If the connecting instance is managed by the cloud provider, then SUPERUSER is not available and you should create the role via that provider's admin console. The created role will have provider specific restricted semi-SUPERUSER privileges:

You should grant Bytebase privileges with that semi-SUPERUSER role, e.g.:

-- For AWS RDS
GRANT rds_superuser TO bytebase
-- For Google Cloud SQL
GRANT cloudsqlsuperuser TO bytebase

Besides, you may need to grant Bytebase privileges with GRANT role_name TO bytebase; for all existing roles. Otherwise, Bytebase may not access existing databases or tables.

Google Cloud Spanner

For connecting to Google Cloud Spanner, you need to provide the following info:

  1. Google cloud project ID.
  2. Google cloud Spanner instance ID.
  3. Google cloud service account credentials.


Specify Google Cloud Project ID and Spanner Instance ID

Spanner database detail page

From the Spanner database detail page, you can get the project ID and the instance ID from the URL.

For example, the project ID and instance ID are spanner-test-3717002 and spanner-bb1 respectively for the above database.

Create a Google Cloud Service Account as the Credential

  1. Go to Google Cloud console.
  2. Click APIs & Services and then Credentials. You might have to click Menu on the top left first.
  3. Click Create Credentials and then Service account.
  4. For Service account name, enter a name for the service account.
  5. Click Create and Continue.
  6. For Select a role, select Cloud Spanner Database Admin for the service account.
  7. Click Done.
  8. Click the created service account.
  9. At the top, click Keys and then Add Key and then Create new key. Make sure the key type is set to JSON and click Create.
  10. You'll get a message that the service account's private key JSON file was downloaded to your computer. Make a note of the file name and where your browser saves it. You'll need it later.

Upload the JSON file to the Credentials input.


For managing Oracle database, Bytebase provides two manage modes: Manage based on database and Manage based on schema. You can choose the manage mode when adding an instance or in the instance detail page.

Manage based on database

In this mode, Bytebase will manage the database as a whole.

  • For normal Oracle instance, we treat the Oracle database as a Bytebase database.
  • For CDB instance, we treat the CDB and all PDBs as Bytebase databases.
  • For PDB instance, we treat the PDB as a Bytebase database.

Manage based on schema

In this mode, Bytebase will manage the schema as a whole.

  • For any Oracle database, we treat the Oracle schema as a Bytebase database.
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