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📕 What is Cost-based optimization (CBO)?


A optimization strategy used by the query engine to pick a query plan to execute the SQL statement based on the cost estimate. It's the strategy used by all mainstream databases. It's predecessor is Rule-based optimization (RBO). The advantage of CBO is it's more adaptive than the hard-coded RBO since it's based on the actual context, the number of estimated rows to be fetched, the cost of each fetch, the index to be used and etc. Because there are quite a few factors to consider, and it's prohibitive expensive to explore all permutations, thus the database often finds the best plan among a subset of all possible plans.

Safer and faster database change and version control for DBAs and Developers

Bytebase is an open source, web-based database schema change and version control tool for teams. It offers a web-based collaboration workspace to help DBAs and Developers manage the lifecycle of application database schemas.

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SQL Review

A dedicated review workflow and UI for Developers and DBAs to collaborate on schema changes. Assisted by built-in advisor such as backward compatibility checks.


Integrate with VCS hosting the migration scripts. Migration pipeline is triggered on observing new script push event.

Streamlined Deployment

Support multi-tenant (M), multi-environment (N) schema change in a single M*N change matrix pipeline.

SQL Editor

Easy-to-use query interface to SELECT database records.

Migration History

Record the full migration history with side-by-side diff comparison between versions.

Anomaly Center

Periodically scan all managed instances and databases and provide user a holistic view to see all anomalies.

Drift Detection

Periodically scan all managed instances and databases and provide user a holistic view to see all anomalies.

Backup and Restore

Per-database automatic and manual backup. Environment specific backup schedule policy. Restore to new database with the entire restored migration history chain.

Role-based Access Control

Two role set. Owner, DBA, Developer for workspace. Owner, Developer for project.