Change Databases from Multiple Tenants


This feature is only available in the Enterprise Plan.

Bytebase allows you to change a collection of databases with identical schemas, these databases are often referred as tenant databases.


Typical scenarios of tenant databases are:

  • A Software as a Service (SaaS) provider provides separate database instances for each of its customers (aka. tenants) alongside their application deployments.
  • An internal platform team provides multi-region database deployments (e.g. US, EU), and have separate database instances in different deployment environments (e.g. Staging, Prod).

It is often desired to apply schema changes to databases across all tenants since these databases are homogeneous, but in a staged rollout fashion (aka. canary deployment) to minimize the risk of breaking all deployments.

You should consider using tenant databases when there are multiple database instances alongside multiple deployments for the same application. For example, a software company offers medical record storage services for its customers, hospitals. Each hospital is considered as a tenant, and each tenant has to store their patient data in its own database for regulation or privacy purposes. This feature allows updating database schema for all tenants in a simple and consistent way. Other use cases include multi-location databases for supporting highly-available services where each location is a tenant.

Let's take the hospital example to follow the steps below.


  • You have a running Bytebase with Test and Prod environments.
  • You have at least two instances of the same database type, one for Test environment and others for Prod environment.

Create a Project in Tenant Mode

Tenant projects empowers you to:

  1. Roll out schema changes and data updates to mutiple tenant databases by their environments, tenant labels or any combination of them.
  2. Progressively roll out through different stages, and only proceed to the next stage when all of rollouts in the current stage are successful.
  3. When there is a new tenant database created, it will inherit the same schema structures.

Create Databases with Tenant Labels

Within the project, click New DB to create four databases as following and then click Rollout and Resolve one by one:


  • hospital_test for Test environment with empty Tenant field
  • hospital_prod_1 for Prod environment with h1 in Tenant field
  • hospital_prod_2 for Prod environment with h2 in Tenant field
  • hospital_prod_3 for Prod environment with h3 in Tenant field

In real life case, another way is to click Transfer in DB to transfer in your existing databases and then go into a specific database to edit the Tenant.


Adjust Deployment Configuration

Within the project, click Databases tab and you'll see the default deployment pipeline preview.


Scroll down and you will see the default deployment config.


Adjust the config deployment to the following by specifying Tenant. Besides the two default stages by environments, an extra stage for canary testing is added.


Scroll up and you will see the new pipeline preview.


Alter Schema for Tenant Databases

  1. Within the project, click Alter Schema. You'll see the popup.


  1. Paste the following scripts into the Raw SQL, and click Preview issue.
`name` VARCHAR(255) NOT NULL,
  1. You'll be redirect to new issue preview page. Click Create, the issue with the configured pipeline will be created. SQL will be the same for all the tenant databases. Click Approve and Rollout if needed one database after another. cmt-create-issue

  2. When it comes to stage with multiple databases, you may choose to Rollout current stage to rollout all databases under that stage. cmt-rollout-batch

  3. Once the issue is completed, all tenant databases will have the same updated schema version.


Add a New Database

Within a tenant project, if you add a new database, it will automatically inherit the identical schemas from others.

  1. Click New DB, and create hospital_prod_4 for Prod environment with h4 in Tenant field.
  2. Go to view database hospital_prod_4, you'll see the tm1 table is already there.


Specify Database Name Template

Typically, all tenant databases should have the same database name and will be placed on different database instances. For some use cases, tenant databases need to have different database names and may be on the same or different database instances. Users can define a database name template where the database name should include the tenant name. For example, a database name template can be {{DB_NAME}}__{{TENANT}}. If the database name is hospital_prod, and there are 3 tenants h1, h2, h3, the database name for the respective tenants are hospital_prod__h1, hospital_prod__h2, hospital_prod__h3 having the same schema.

  1. Within the project, click Databases tab and you'll see the Tenant Database Name Template section. Click Edit, input {{DB_NAME}}__{{TENANT}} and click Update. cmt-db-naming-template-update

  2. Click New DB, if the database name doesn't match the template {{DB_NAME}}__{{TENANT}}, there will be an error. You need to name it hospital_prod__h5. Both hospital_prod_h5(separator should have two underscores instead of one) hospital_prod__5 (tenant name should be h5 instead of 5) will cause error. cmt-db-name-error


You can further adopt GitOps to batch change tenant databases.

Batch Change Tenant Databases
Edit this page on GitHub

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